England captain Joe Root was brilliantly run out by Kohli at Edgbaston and the Indian captain mocked his opposite number with his celebration, but the hosts would be laughing last after dramatically recovering to win the first test and they have taken firm control of the second ahead of day three in London.
In the 6.3 overs possible it was Anderson, swinging the new ball with nearly absurd ease, who struck twice.
First, though, it was Jos Buttler who decided offence was his best option, hitting four boundaries as England surpassed India's first-innings total and took the lead. The second saw KL Rahul, deceived by late away swing, caught behind.
Meanwhile Chris Woakes marked his return to worldwide cricket with two wickets for 19 runs in six overs, removing both India captain Virat Kohli (24) and Hardik Pandya (11) via slip catches by Jos Buttler.
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India skipper Virat Kohli turns back on Cheteshwar Pujara. Such scrambled thinking then did for Pujara after India's No3 set off for a single in Anderson's next over.
After a rain delay, Cheteshwar Pujara was run out by debutant Ollie Pope and a downpour followed immediately.
By contrast, England's innings commenced under sunny blue skies that promised to make life easier for the batsmen. It took the Surrey right-hander just two balls to score his first Test runs when he flicked a Sharma inswinger behind square-leg for four.
In a day deeply affected by the weather, England cashed in on conditions and put India's batsmen to the sword.
Sam Curran, the 20-year-old all-rounder who was man of the match at Edgbaston, then came to the party to bowl Dinesh Karthik with a attractive in-swinger. "For me I find it so much fun when it is like that", said Anderson.